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Glossary Of Terms

Acid - The electrolyte solution inside a battery that helps transport electrons between the cathode and anode terminals.

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) - AGM batteries are traditionally used in vehicles that include technology such as start/stop and heated seats. In an AGM battery, the positive and negative plates are separated by absorbent glass mats which absorb the battery's acid and prevents it from moving freely around the inside of the battery.

Alternating Current (AC) - Alternating current is an electrical current that is multi-directional and continuously changes its direction of flow.

Amp/Ampere - Amperes or Amps are the unit used in the measurement of electrical current in an electrical circuit.

Battery - A unit consisting of one or more cells that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

Capacity - This is the measurement of the amount of energy a battery can supply until it is fully discharged.

Cycle - A cycle is one complete discharge of a battery plus one recharge of the battery.

Deep Cycle - A deep cycle battery allows for deep discharge and recharge for continual use, without damaging the battery.

Direct Current (DC) - Direct current is an electrical current that is one directional and always flows in the same direction.

Discharge - Every battery continually discharges, both when in use and when stored. Discharge is when your battery loses energy or voltage.

EFB (Enhanced Flooded Battery) - An EFB battery is considered to be an entry level battery for vehicles fitted with modern technology such as start/stop functionality.

Electrolyte - Electrolyte is the liquid or paste inside the battery that aides the transport and flow of the positively charged ions to the cathode and anode terminals.

Forming - Once a battery has been constructed, filled with electrolyte and then sealed, it needs to be formed. This is where the battery is slowly charged and discharged and allows the build up of the solid electrolyte interphase layer, which is crucial to battery performance.

Hydrometer - Used to test and determine the state of charge of your battery, a hydrometer measures the electrolyte solution.

Inverter - An inverter is used to change DC power from your battery into AC power that can be used for devices such as kettles and power tools.

Lithium Ion Battery - Lithium ion batteries are an advanced type of rechargeable battery that use lithium ions as a key component of their electrochemistry.

MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) - MPPT is the optimisation process of extracting and converting energy from a power source into usable energy.

Negative Terminal - The negative terminal on a car battery is usually colour coded black and marked with a minus (-) sign.

Overcharge - Once a battery is fully charged, if it then continues to charge, this is called overcharge. This can cause irreparable damage to your battery.

Parallel Connection - Connecting two batteries together by matching the terminal connections will create a parallel connection. This parallel connection will increase the capacity(Ah).

Parasitic Drain - A parasitic drain is an electrical component that is continually drawing power even after your car is parked. Sometimes this can be caused due to a faulty internal or external light.

Portable Power Stations - A portable power station will allow you to be able to power electronical devices and appliances in an emergency or when you are off-grid.

Positive Terminal - The positive terminal on a car battery is usually colour coded red and marked with a plus (+) sign.

Sealed Lead Acid Battery - A seal lead acid battery is a maintenance free battery that allows for trouble-free and safe operation in any position.

Self Discharge - Self discharge is the process of a battery's charge slowly reducing over time. This can happen when the battery is both connected and disconnected. Monitoring and maintaining your batteries will prevent self discharge from causing lasting damage to your battery.

Series Connection - Series connection of batteries will increase the voltage but will not increase the capacity of the batteries. A series connections sees the positive terminal of the first battery connected with the negative terminal of the additional battery.

Shelf Life - The amount of time a battery can be stored without dropping below a specified percentage of its original energy content.

Starter Batteries - The starter battery is used to start up the electrical system and drive the starter motor as well as other electrical equipment in your vehicle.

State of Charge (SoC) - Your car battery will have a state of charge. This is the measurement of the batteries current state of charge against its available capacity.

State of Health (SoH) - Your car battery will have a state of health. As your battery gets older, this state of health will naturally reduce. State of health is measured as a percentage against the original capacity.

Stop-Start - Cars and vehicles fitted with stop/start functionality will have their engine shut down whenever their vehicle is stationary, such as at traffic lights. This reduces fuel consumption and emissions.

Sulphation - Sulphation is one of the main causes of battery failure. As the battery is deprived of full charge, the build-up of lead sulphate crystals occur.

Supply Batteries - Often called leisure and domestic batteries, they are used in motorhomes and RV's and will power additional items such as kettles or TV's. They are designed to provide a constant flow of power for a prolonged period of time, without affecting the starter battery on the vehicle.

Trickle Charge - Charging a fully charged battery at the same rate as the batteries self discharge rate, which keeps the battery fully charged and ready to use. Typically classic cars and motorcycles are left on trickle charge during winter months when they are not used.

Voltage - Voltage generates the flow of electrons through a circuit.

Watt - Watts are a unit of power, they measure the rate of power(flow) at a moment in time. A 10W lightbulb requires more power (flow) than a 5W light bulb.

Watt-Hour - Watt-hours measure the amount of energy used for the given amount of time. A 10W light bulb switched on for 10 hours would use 100Wh, equally a 100W light bulb switched on for 1 hour would also use 100Wh of power.

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